Australiaofficially known as the Commonwealth of Australiais a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continentthe island of Tasmaniaand numerous smaller islands.
The population of 26 million  is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. The country's other major metropolitan areas are MelbourneBrisbanePerthand Adelaide. Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65, years  prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland.
InAustralia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 Januarya date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an s gold rushmost of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 Januarythe six colonies federatedforming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchycomprising six states and ten territories. Australia is the oldest,  flattest,  and driest inhabited continent,   with the least fertile soils.
Australia generates its income from various sources, including mining-related exportstelecommunicationsbankingmanufacturingand international education.
Australia is a highly developed countrywith the world's fourteenth-largest economy. It has a high-income economywith the world's tenth-highest per capita income. Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as " New Holland ", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in as Nieuw-Holland and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts.
Gerardus Mercator — used the phrase climata australia on his double cordiform map of the world ofas did Gemma Frisius —who was Mercator's teacher and collaborator, on his own cordiform wall map in Australia appears in a book on astronomy by Cyriaco Jacob zum Barth published in Frankfurt-am-Main in The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in Aprilwhen Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst.
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar 's poem " My Country ". Human habitation of the Australian continent is known to have begun at least 65, years ago,   with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. With the loss of its American colonies inthe British Government sent a fleet of ships, the " First Fleet ", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillipto establish a new penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the Union flag raised at Sydney CovePort Jacksonon 26 January  a date which later became Australia's national day, Australia Day.
Most early convicts were transported for petty crimes and assigned as labourers or servants upon arrival. While the majority settled into colonial society once emancipatedconvict rebellions and uprisings were also staged, but invariably suppressed under martial law. The Rum Rebellionthe only successful armed takeover of government in Australia, instigated a two-year period of military rule. The indigenous population declined for years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease.
The expansion of British control over other areas of the continent began in the early 19th century, initially confined to coastal regions. A settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land present-day Tasmania inand it became a separate colony in Explorers remained ambitious to discover new lands for agriculture or answers to scientific enquiries.
A series of gold rushes beginning in the early s led to an influx of new migrants from ChinaNorth America and mainland Europe,  and also spurred outbreaks of bushranging and civil unrest.These dogs have previously been abandoned, neglected, or lived in a home that either cannot or will not keep them any longer. We foster these dogs and evaluate them. We take care of their medical needs and then diligently strive to place them into caring, loving and permanent homes.
It's a big day for Gus. From a backyard in Sweetwater to a great home in Spicewood with the Gilmore family.
Gus is super sweet and will become attached quickly to his new family Many thanks to Liane So our red headed Harry has found a wonderful home with the Douglas family in Georgetown. We all want the very best for Harry. Many thanks to Elaine for sending us Harry from Loui Finley has had a hard journey and it's not over yet.
Past adopters, John and Pat are more than willing to do whatever else he needs to get him walking and playing again. Leena, C Max has found a wonderful home with a loving couple. Many thanks to Victoria for se Wade and Bear were looking for the same thing.
We love this match. Thanks to Tim for the home visit and thanks to Elizabeth for fostering this puppy. Cooper has finally found his home. He will live in San Antonio with Patty and Jessy. Lots of love and training in his future. Thanks to Tracy and Leslie View Available Aussies. They are not ready for adoption yet and the description is all the information we have at this time. Each dog will stay weeks in foster care for evaluation or until they are medically healthy and ready for adoption.
Four year old Brady is another red dog from La. He weighs approx. He knows nothing. Brady will be e She is a blue merle female and weighs approx. We do know that LilAustralianscolloquially referred to as " Aussies ", are people associated with the country of Australiausually holding Australian citizenship. Between and the Second World Warthe vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles principally EnglandIreland and Scotlandalthough there was significant immigration from China and Germany during the 19th century.
Many early British settlements were penal colonies to house transported convicts. Immigration of "free settlers" increased exponentially from the s, following a series of gold rushes.
In the decades immediately following the Second World War, Australia received a large wave of immigration from across Europewith many more immigrants arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe than in previous decades. Since the end of the White Australia policy inAustralia has pursued an official policy of multiculturalism and has the world's eighth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 30 percent of the population in The development of a separate Australian identity and national character began in the 19th century, linked with the anti-transportation and nativist movements and the Eureka Rebellion during the colonial period and culminated in the federation of the Australian colonies in The primary language is Australian Englishand Australian culture and literature have historically developed from Anglo-Celtic and Western traditions.
The majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the indigenous population and others from outlying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can also be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists, settlers, and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain inwith the arrival of the First Fleetand five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states.
The predominance of the English languagethe existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of the Westminster system of government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchyAmerican constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, and the popularity of sports originating in or influenced by the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged significantly since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the s.
Australians are referred to as " Aussie " and are may be referred to as " Antipodean " by those in the northern hemisphere. As a result of many shared linguistic, historical, cultural and geographic characteristics, Australians have often identified closely with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of IndigenousAmericanBritishand more recent immigrant customs, languages, and religions have also combined to form the modern Australian culture.
In the Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 1]  . Since soon after the beginning of British settlement inpeople of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia. Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will.
By the mids, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, and almost all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Islesand 6 percent were of European origin, mainly from Germany and Scandinavia.
There were 1. The European population grew from 0. Abolition of the White Australia Policy in led to a significant increase in non-European immigration, mostly from Asia and the Middle East.Toneshifterz - I Am Australian (Hardstyle) - HQ Videoclip
At the census, there were 3, nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the geographical categories of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the original inhabitants of the Australian continent. The term "Aboriginal" is traditionally applied to only the indigenous inhabitants of mainland Australia and Tasmaniaalong with some of the adjacent islands. Indigenous Australians is an inclusive term used when referring to both Aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders, i.
Dispersing across the Australian continent over time, the ancient peoples expanded and differentiated into hundreds of distinct groups, each with its own language and culture.Australiathe smallest continent and one of the largest countries on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. The Australian mainland extends from west to east for nearly 2, miles 4, km and from Cape York Peninsula in the northeast to Wilsons Promontory in the southeast for nearly 2, miles 3, km.
To the south, Australian jurisdiction extends a further miles km to the southern extremity of the island of Tasmaniaand in the north it extends to the southern shores of Papua New Guinea. In simple physical terms, the age of much of the continent is certainly impressive—most of the rocks providing the foundation of Australian landforms were formed during Precambrian and Paleozoic time some 4.
Australia is the last of lands only in the sense that it was the last continent, apart from Antarctica, to be explored by Europeans. At least 60, years before European explorers sailed into the South Pacific, the first Aboriginal explorers had arrived from Asiaand by 20, years ago they had spread throughout the mainland and its chief island outlier, Tasmania.
When Captain Arthur Phillip of the British Royal Navy landed with the First Fleet at Botany Bay inthere may have been betweenandAboriginals, though some estimates are much higher. Largely nomadic hunters and gatherers, the Aboriginals had already transformed the primeval landscape, principally by the use of fire, and, contrary to common European perceptions, they had established robustsemipermanent settlements in well-favoured localities.
There was, rather, a series of comparatively independent expansions from the margins of the various colonies, which were not joined in an independent federated union until The most striking characteristics of the vast country are its global isolation, its low relief, and the aridity of much of its surface. If, like the English novelist D.
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Its unique flora and fauna include hundreds of kinds of eucalyptus trees and the only egg-laying mammals on Earth, the platypus and echidna.
Other plants and animals associated with Australia are various acacias Acacia pycnantha [golden wattle] is the national flower and dingoes, kangaroos, koalas, and kookaburras. Isolation is also a pronounced characteristic of much of the social landscape beyond the large coastal cities.
But an equally significant feature of modern Australian society is the representation of a broad spectrum of cultures drawn from many lands, a development stemming from immigration that is transforming the strong Anglo-Celtic orientation of Australian culture. Assimilation, of course, is seldom a quick and easy process, and minority rights, multiculturalism, and race-related issues have played a large part in contemporary Australian politics.
In the late s these issues sparked a conservative backlash. Australia has a federal form of government, with a national government for the Commonwealth of Australia and individual state governments those of New South WalesVictoriaQueenslandSouth AustraliaWestern Australiaand Tasmania.
Each state has a constitution, and its government exercises a limited degree of sovereignty. There are also two internal territories: Northern Territoryestablished as a self-governing territory inand the Australian Capital Territory including the city of Canberrawhich attained self-governing status in Papua New Guinea, formerly an Australian external territory, gained its independence in Historically part of the British Empire and now a member of the CommonwealthAustralia is a relatively prosperous independent country.
Australians are in many respects fortunate in that they do not share their continent—which is only a little smaller than the United States —with any other country.
Extremely remote from their traditional allies and trading partners—it is some 12, miles 19, km from Australia to Great Britain via the Indian Ocean and the Suez Canal and about 7, miles 11, km across the Pacific Ocean to the west coast of the United States—Australians have become more interested in the proximity of huge potential markets in Asia and in the highly competitive industrialized economies of ChinaJapanSouth Koreaand Taiwan.
Australia Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents.Rachel Baxendale, Damon Johnston. Ewin Hannan, Rachel Baxendale. Two weeks worth of class members at a popular F45 in Sydney must go into isolation immediately, after a new case was diagnosed on Thursday.
A man wielding a knife outside a church in Nice has killed three people, including one whose throat was slit, and injured several others. ANZ chief executive Shayne Elliott has poured cold water on the prospect of any economic benefit from an expected RBA rate cut next week. South Yarra locals might be starting to wonder if millionaire entrepreneur Andrew Muir is a good guy after all. Richard Gluyas Business Correspondent.
Alice Workman Strewth Editor. Pictures of the Prime Minister building a hen house might be too clever by half. Niki Savva Opinion Columnist. Greg Sheridan Foreign Editor.
Pollsters have changed their methods since the US presidential election, but you can still expect the unexpected. Cameron Stewart Washington Correspondent.
Ignat Solzhenitsyn Contributor. Once Aussie men are fat, they rarely return to a healthy weight. And the older we get, the fatter we become. Dreaming of a holiday that will make feel like a distant memory? Look no further than these bucket-list stays, set over incredible bodies of water. Former prime minister Kevin Rudd says the New York think tank he chairs has acted swiftly to deal with links to convicted pedophile Jeffrey Epstein.
A former soldier, a marijuana oil-sipping kickboxing champion and an outspoken high school principal have all lined up to contest seats for One Nation.
The looters came in cars and off-road motorbikes, pulling up in front of the vast superstore in Philadelphia.Which colourful escape will you choose? Packed with local secrets, traveler tips and visitor offers - delivered straight to your inbox.
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Backpacking Backpacking in Australia. Backpacking jobs How much can you earn?Example: flase name optional The name you want to give to the new ensemble. Example: "000003" ordering optional Specifies the type of ordering followed to build the models of the ensemble.
Example: 16 tags optional A list of strings that help classify and retrieve the ensemble. If no significant improvement is made on the holdout, boosting will stop early. This value should be between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive). Example: false iterations optional The maximum number of boosting iterations to be performed. For regression problems, one boosted tree will be generated for every iteration. For classification problems, however, N trees will be generated for every iteration, where N is the number of classes.
This value should be between 0 (exclusive) and 1 (exclusive). This will be 201 upon successful creation of the ensemble and 200 afterwards. Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the ensemble creation has been completed without errors.
This is the date and time in which the ensemble was created with microsecond precision. True when the ensemble has been created in the development mode. Unordered list of distributions for each model in the ensemble. Each distribution is an Object with a entry for the distribution of instances in the training set and the distribution of predictions in the model.
See a model distribution field for more details. The list of fields's ids that were excluded to build the models of the ensemble. The list of input fields' ids used to build the models of the ensemble. Order in which each model in the list of models was finished.
The distributions above must be accessed following this index. Specifies the id of the field that the ensemble predicts. Example: "000003" ordering filterable, sortable The order used to chose instances from the dataset to build the models of the ensemble.
In a future version, you will be able to share ensembles with other co-workers or, if desired, make them publicly available. The range of instances used to build the models of the ensemble.
Minimum 1 and maximum 1024 A description of the status of the ensemble. This is the date and time in which the ensemble was updated with microsecond precision. A status code that reflects the status of the ensemble creation. Number of milliseconds that BigML took to process the ensemble. Example: true bias optional Whether to include the bias term from the solution.
Example: false c optional The inverse of the regularization strength. Must be greater than 0. Example: 2 category optional The category that best describes the logistic regression. Example: "This is a description of my new logistic regression" eps optional Stopping criteria for solver. If the difference between the results from the current and last iterations is less than eps, then the solver is finished. Example: false name optional The name you want to give to the new logistic regression. Example: "my new logistic regression" normalize optional Whether to normalize feature vectors in training and predicting.